1045 is medium tensile low hardenability carbon steel generally supplied in the black hot rolled or occasionally in the normalised condition, with a typical tensile strength range 570 – 700 Mpa and Brinell hardness range 170 – 210 in either condition.
Characterised by fairly good strength and impact properties, plus good machinability and reasonable weldability in the hot rolled or normalised condition.
1045 has a low through hardening capability with sections up to around 60mm only generally recommended as suitable for through hardening and tempering. It can however be successfully flame or induction hardened in the as rolled or normalised condition resulting in surface harnesses of up to Rc 54 – Rc 60 depending upon quenching medium employed, type of set up, section size etc. Core strengths will remain as supplied.
It does n’t however respond satisfactorily to nitriding due to a lack of suitable alloying elements.
1045 is used extensively by all industry sectors for applications requiring more strength and wear resistance than the low carbon mild steels can provide and the higher strength of the low alloy high tensile steels is not necessary, plus those applications requiring flame or induction hardening.
Typical applications are: Axles Various, Bolts, Connecting Rods, Hydraulic Clamps and Rams, Pins Various, Rolls Various, Studs, Shafts, Spindles etc.
COLOUR CODE: Serpentine – bar end.
FORGING: - Pre heat to 750 – 800degc, and then continue heating to 1100 – 1200degc maximum, hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section and commence forging immediately. Do not forge below 850degc. Finished forgings may be air cooled.
ANNEALING: - Heat to 800 – 850degc hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, and cool in furnace.
FLAME OR INDUCTION HARDENING: - Heat as quickly as possible to austenitic temperature range (820 – 860degc) and required case depth followed by and immediate water or oil quench, depending upon hardness required, work piece size/shape and quenching arrangements. The black hot rolled/normalised surface will first require to be machined sufficiently to remove any de carburised layer, otherwise less than satisfactorily results will be obtained. Following quenching to hand warm, most components should be tempered at 150-200degc to remove quenching stresses in the case. This will have little effect on case hardness.
HARDENING: - Heat to 820 – 850degc hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 10-15mins per 25mm of section, and quench in water or brine. OR: Heat to 830 – 860degc soak as above and quench in oil. Temper immediately while still hand warm.
NORMALISING: - Heat to 870- 920degc hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 10-15mins. Cool in still air.
STRESS RELIEVING: - Heat to 550 – 660degc hold until temperature is uniform throughout the section, soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section, and cool in still air.
TEMPERING: - Re heat to 400 – 650degc as required, hold until temperature is uniform the section, soak for 1 hour per 25mm of section, and cool in still air.
NOTES ON HEAT TREATMENT: Heating temperatures, rate of heating, cooling and soaking times will vary due to factors such as work piece size/shape. Also furnace type employed, quenching medium and work piece transfer facilities etc. Please consult your heat treater for best results.
MACHINING: - 1045 is the hot rolled and normalised condition has been very good machinability and all operations such as sawing, turning, drilling, broaching, milling and tapping etc. Can be carried out satisfactorily using machine manufacturers recommendations for suitable tool type, feeds and speeds.
WELDING: - 1045 is readily weldable in the as rolled and normalized condition providing the correct procedure is employed following welding the work piece immediately upon cooling to hand warm should be stress relieved at 550 – 660degc if possible. NB. Welding in the hardened and tempered, flame induction hardened condition is not recommended.
WELDING PROCEDURE: - Welding of 1045 should always be carried out using low hydrogen electrodes. Please consult your welding consumables supplier.
POST WELDING: - Cool as slowly as possible in dry lime, sand etc.
Category: MERCHANTS & BRIGHTS